Terms of access: Whether the data is online or not, the agreement must determine who has what rights to access the data, who has what rights to modify or modify the data, and what methods apply to accessing the data. The USGS should not share or exchange records or data that are: it is important to recognize that the process of setting up data exchange agreements differs from country to country, as well as the nature of the data that is shared and the agencies that share the data. The manual chapter of the USGS Survey 500.26 – Domestic Memorandum of Understanding states: “If necessary, languages are included [in MOUs] such as: All data and information generated as a result of this agreement must be made available to the USGS as part of its current programmes. This includes, if necessary, the publication of the results, unless it is prohibited for well-founded protection and security reasons. Second, it avoids miscommunication by the data provider and the authority receiving the data by indicating that data usage issues are being addressed. Before the data is disclosed, the provider and recipient must speak in person or over the phone to discuss data sharing and data usage issues and reach a common communication, which will then be recorded in a data sharing agreement. Data exchange agreements are formal contracts detailing the data disclosed and the data used for the data. A data-sharing agreement is an agreement between a party with useful data (the Discloser) and a party that searches for data for research on (the recipient) under which the public agrees to share its data with the recipient. These could be two universities that agree to share data for research cooperation, one or more private companies active in research or development, and even a government agency working with a private agency. If the partner is a foreign unit that does not accept compliance with U.S. law, the agreements must go through the USGS Office of International Programs. A data exchange agreement is a formal contract that clearly documents what data is disclosed and how the data can be used.

Such an agreement has two objectives. First, it protects the authority that provides the data and ensures that the data is not misused. “One of the challenges of the territorial community is to promote data exchange and cooperation between several agencies and organizations at several levels of public, private and associative organizations. The interchangeable and successfully collaborating field of interchangeable data is based on the adoption of guiding principles, the identification of best practices and the recognition of challenges that may include political, scientific and technological issues. (National Geospatial Advisory Committee, 2011) Data exchange agreements must include access and dissemination provisions.