As far as ti is concerned, we refer to the output-BTA impact index from C1 to C2 (in (C1,C2) as an input-BTA impact index from C2 to C1). The average BTA “out” and “in” effect indices of a cc country are defined as the average values of export and import links, which were taken up for the export and import links of all countries that negotiated a BTA with Cc. 17. Antkiewicz A, Whalley J. China`s new regional trade agreements. World Econ. (2005) 28:1539-57. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9701.2005.00746.x Third, governments forego unfair subsidies. Many countries subsidize strategic industries such as energy and agriculture. This will reduce costs for these producers. It gives them an unfair advantage in exporting to another nation. An interactive list of bilateral and multilateral free trade instruments can be find on the TREND Analytics website.

[59] The main difference between multilateral and bilateral free trade agreements is the number of participants. Multilateral trade agreements cover three or more countries, without discrimination between the parties concerned, while bilateral trade agreements exist between two countries. Both countries, for example, have certain privileges; they have favourable import quotas that are not available to other trading partners and only to the two nations that have signed the bilateral treaty. Examples include the Australia-New Zealand-New Zealand Free Trade Agreement and Canada (Dictionary of Political Economy, 2006). Onpulson, 2006). 16. Feinberg RE. The U.S. political economy free trade agreements.

World Econ. (2003) 26:1019-40. doi: 10.1111/1467-9701.00561 18. Serrano A, Boguna M. Topology of international web commerce. Phys Rev E. (2003) 68:015101. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevE.68.015101 Figure 4.

Trade profile for China. Ti china to its partners (above) and partner in China (below) within 5 years of the effective date of each BTA. The left and right zones show the results of export links (imports). China`s BTA partners include Chile (CHL), Hong Kong (HKG), New Zealand (NZL), Pakistan (HAP) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (AS). The score values displayed in red (violet) z imply a higher (lower) IT level in the 5-year period after tf. Trade agreements in red (purple) regions indicate a positive (negative) trend in IT between partners. A positive (negative) value of the BTA b impact index is attributed to a trade agreement if it is followed by both a positive trend and a higher level (negative trend and lower level) of ti. 29. Garlaschelli D, Loffredo MI. Structure and development of the global trading network. Physica A. (2005) 255:138-44.

doi: 10.1016/j.physa.2005.02.075 with Cc, which refers to the sub-quantity of all sectors i belonging to a single country c. We call TIout (C1,C2) an IT output from C1 to C2, which can be interpreted as the relative importance of C2 in the role of a consumer for C1. The relative importance of C1 in the role of a supplier for C2 is quantified by analogy by the ti input from C2 to C1, TIin (C1,C2). In the equation (2), the Max-Max describes the maximum length of the trail (compared to national economic areas) of the random hiker to be taken into account. We find that a reasonable choice of Max is twice the average length of the path between the two ITN sub-graphs that are surrounded by the C1 and C2 economies. A more detailed analysis of this choice and an analysis of the sensitivity of the results in relation to different max values are presented in Section 4. A multilateral contract contains guidelines from which the minimum price and maximum purchase price are set, so that importers have an indication of guaranteed quantities of purchase and that producing countries know what guaranteed quantities they will sell to importers. A complete list of trade agreements analyzed is shown in Table 1 (annex). 6. Anderson JE, Yotov YV.

Terms of trade and overall efficiency effects of free trade agreements, 19902002.