Venezuela is the world`s fifth largest oil exporter and hydro-intensive country, and venezuela is unlikely to need nuclear power to meet its energy needs. Moreover, until recently, open source evidence did not indicate that Venezuela might consider pursuing nuclear weapons. The country has only one nuclear facility, very limited nuclear know-how and is one of the major nuclear non-proliferation agreements and regimes. [2] Caracas became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in August 1957, after purchasing a 3 MW research reactor from the U.S. General Electric Company in 1956. The reactor, which was criticized in July 1960, was operated by the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones (IVIC) under the protection of the IAEA and officially shut down in January 1994. [3] According to some reports, the reactor site is “now used for irradiation, medical sterilization and research in food processing”. [4] In November 2008, it also established relations with Russia, which resulted in a nuclear cooperation agreement. After a failed coup attempt in 2002, which Chavez accused the United States of, and a deterioration in relations with the United States, Chavez turned to Russia to preserve military equipment and energy cooperation. [25] Between 2005 and 2007, it donated approximately $4 billion in Russian weapons, including 100,000 Kalashnikov AK-103 assault rifles (and a factory to build more in Venezuela), 24 Sukhoi fighter jets and 53 combat helicopters. [26] In 2010, Caracas received a $2.2 billion loan to purchase Russian tanks and missile systems, and the following year the country became the largest importer of Russian weapons for ground troops. [27] In February 1967, Venezuela signed the Treaty of Tlatelolco, which was ratified three years later in March 1970. The treaty, which came into force in October 2002, prohibits the acquisition, manufacture, use, testing or possession of nuclear weapons in the region.

[5] Venezuela joined the Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1975 as a non-nuclear state and negotiated an IAEA safeguard agreement covering its nuclear activities, which came into force in March 1982. [6] In November 1983, Venezuela and Brazil signed an agreement that provided for cooperation in the research, denials, development and use of experimental and operating reactors; Research on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; and prospecting “for minerals using nuclear applications.” [7] However, there is little public information on the activities carried out under this agreement.